Pest problems are not new for farmers. As per scientific research, pests are more likely to attack farms for crops. Thus, some common crops the pests causing loss to are soybean, potato yields, maize, wheat, and rice. Therefore, productive pest control actions have become essential for the agriculture industry and farms.
Pests problems are not only limited to the damages to crops and the revenue. Additionally, it also has adverse effects on property, machinery, and tools. Therefore, pests species like rodents, birds, and insects have made farmers face huge losses. In addition, the bacteria, fungi, vertebrates, arthropods are also affecting farmers’ survival.
Some major pests issues faced by farmers:
Damages to crop:
The population growth of harmful pest insects depends upon climatic changes. At the same time, climatic changes are also related to crop production, changes in pests’ population rate. Moreover, the growth of pest insects is affected by patterns of precipitation, rise in temperature, fluctuation in the gaseous nature of the environment, etc.
At first, the threatening insects eat the leaves and dig a hole in plants’ roots, fruits, or stems. Second, they may also indirectly damage crops by transmitting fungal or bacterial infections. On the other hand, mice and rats are also responsible for crop damage during the harvesting period. Moreover, they are likely to destroy roots, leaves, grain, fruit, etc. Next, the birds are also responsible for damaging nutritive crops like peas, beans, cherries, plums, etc.
Effect on machinery and tools:
The pests like rats and rodents not only damage crops but machinery also. Moreover, rodents have a habit to nibble and chew things. The teeth of rodents are incisors that grow throughout their lifespan. Thus, mice and rats tend to chew the cable wires, metals, concrete, wood, etc. It is further hazardous to cause electric fire, and shocks. Hence, it leads to huge damage to machines and tools. Subsequently, the damages made by rats will be a huge cost to pay. It not only demands repairing investment but also affects the rate of production.
Crop Infestation and solution:
Insects, weeds, diseases are three major biological factors that affect crop yielding and bring huge loss to farmers in terms of finance. As per the knowledge paper introduced by FICCI, the pest and weeds attack has made the farmers lose a major portion of their income. Certainly, crop yielding faces major pest issues in the chain of farming, right from pre-harvest to harvesting period. Thus, it is highly important to protect the crop during the yielding period and also during transportation. According to the FICCI report, crop protection is assured via the protection of crops from pests and enhanced productivity in farms. Therefore, various practices have been followed by a farmer for crop protection as per the Integrated Pest Management:
Crop plantation is an effective technique to keep the pests away from the target crop. In this method, the farmers sow a different variety of crops in alternate order. Therefore, this technique reduced the weed’s attack. The different plant species are cultivated on the same ground. This helps in maintaining the proper distance between the same crop species. Hence, the pests will get distracted away from their target crop.
Crop rotation methods help to keep the pest deprived of the target crop that farmers cultivate. In this method, the species of the crop that is cultivated is grown alternatively. The variety of a particular crop is grown on an alternate basis which also improves soil fertility.
Growing the crops in locations with suitable climatic conditions is considered. Also, the topography and soil variety is given importance. Therefore, selecting the right location, climate, and water management is marked for better crop production.
Diversity in crop production:
Diversity in crop production keeps pests at bay. Farmers have come forward to produce a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, etc. Generally, this way the chances of all crop damages will be reduced to a greater extent.
Common pests that destroy the crops :
Our laborious farmers face the huge havoc produced due to pests. The kinds of pests that attack crops can be mammals or even insects. Formerly, our farmers pay for their yearly revenue generation. On the other hand, the population of millions suffers a lack of food and crops. However, some common crop-destroying pests are:
Locust is highly notorious. They damage crops in a very short time. They feed on plants. They assemble in a massive swarm and obliterate the cropland.
Japanese beetles were introduced in the 1900s. The adult one feeds on fruits, flower while larvae consume grassroots.
Colorado potato beetles:
These pests majorly target potato plants. Moreover, they also target tomatoes, peppers, etc.
True bugs have more than 75,000 species. Whiteflies and aphids are the most common. They deeply penetrate their mouthpiece to suck the juice of the plant.